The influence of Latitude on climate of a place is of prime importance. The more we move towards the poles, the cooler it gets.
According to Latitude three are basically three type of Climates:
The Hot Climate
This climate is found 23.5 degrees north and south of Equator. The weather remains hot throughout the year and the coolest month is over 64 F. The summers are exceptionally hot and all of the world’s major deserts are present in this climatic zone. The rainfall is dependent on the type of the wind prevailing at a certain point of time. For instance the tropical areas which are under the influence of monsoon, get an appreciable amount of rain whereas the other areas where monsoon does not reach, go completely dry.
The Cool Climate
These are generally found at 40 -60 degrees North and South of equator. The hottest month does not exceed 70 F and the coolest month records a temperature of about 40 F. This region includes most of Europe, Central Asia, Northern and Central China, The Northern and Central United States and the South of Australia.
The rainfall is moderate and total annual rainfall is generally 20 inches to 40 inches. The area affected by the North Atlantic drift are wetter than other areas. Similarly the North East United states is much wetter than other areas of the zone. Some areas are so blessed that they get ample precipitation both in summer and winter like New South Wales of Australia of which the city of Sydney is the typical example.
The cold climate
This climate is found beyond 60 degrees north and south of equator. The hottest month does not exceed 50 F and the coldest month can be several degrees below zero. The North of Canada and Russia are the main areas under this zone. The more northern areas remain snow bound throughout the year.
The precipitation depends upon the location but generally is less than 10 inches. The very cold climate is not conducive to the plant growth and vast areas in this zone are just grassland in summer and a sheet of snow in winter. The severe cold wind blowing most of the time increase the wind chill factor making the weather unbearable.
In short, Latitude determines, to a greater extent, the climate to be expected at a particular place and is of prime importance for many weather studies.