Garbage is a complex form of dirt, since it may be recycled and act as a source for materials and money for the recycler. Waste out of control occurs when either uncollected rubbish is left to rot on the streets or a badly managed landfill causes emissions and general health problems.
Environmentally aware citizens object to landfills not only because of the potential for pollution, but also because they permanently remove many important raw materials from further economic use. All of the energy and natural resources, such as water, that were used to process the items thrown away are also not conserved.
Landfills need to be regulated and the regulations tightly enforced. Without them very few landfill operators would look after their own local environment adequately. Environmental Protection Agencies worldwide, generally rely on the staff working for each of the states to enforce their own operating permits and federal laws.
If state agencies are not strong and persistent in insisting upon compliance, violations can worsen, multiplying negative environmental impacts exponentially. Environmental pollution of land, air, and water created by the world’s poorly-managed landfills is enormous. In the early 21st century, alternative methods to waste disposal have been suggested and many are under construction, including recycling, converting to biodegradable products, incineration and cogeneration facilities, and sustainable development, all of which assist in reducing global pollution.
Environmental activists dislike landfills not only because of the potential for pollution, but because they permanently remove various raw materials from economic use. All of the energy and natural resources (such as water) that were used to process the items “wasted” are also not conserved. Environmental Protection Agency generally relies on the states to enforce their own operating permits and federal laws.
Recent studies have shown the efficacy of such processes; however, they are lacking the data required to enable adequate implementation at field-scale bio-reactor landfills. Research was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of in situ ammonia removal in both acclimated and un-acclimated wastes to aid in developing guidance for field-scale implementation. Recent correspondence from the Commission indicates that this is their interpretation of “closure”. This interpretation of “closure” would mean that site restoration has to be carried out in the after-care phase.
Landfill odors are produced by a variety of sources: decomposing gasses, landfill leachate, gas condensate and in-coming waste materials. Gas extraction systems require constant maintenance to insure that odor-causing leaks are promptly repaired. Landfill odors are of particular concern at the Moretown Landfill. The landfill is situated in a narrow valley that intermittently results in poor dispersion of odors. Landfill odors are primarily made up of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. These gases can be detected by the human nose at very low concentrations.
Landfill odors are controlled principally by the placement of daily cover, usually soil, at the working face. In addition, the landfill operators spray an odor neutralization agent on the waste as it is being compacted, and they distribute pellets which tend to mask or neutralize odors in parts of the facility where the problem is particularly severe.