The worker’s activities are activities of humans and are therefore an essential part of humanity.
These activities have at least five dimensions, on the main aspects that must be considered in the analysis of work, and all the employee needs to be entrepreneur and feel accomplished for production:
a) Technical aspects – involves issues relating to place of work and adjustment physiological and sociological.
b) Physiological aspects – is the degree of adaptation man – place of work – Physical environment and the problem of fatigue – the human being is not a machine and does not work like a machine.
c) Moral aspect – considers the skills, the motivation, the degree of awareness, satisfaction and the intimate relationship between work activity and personality – the work is an extension of personality, is how a person measures his worth and his humanity.
d) Social aspect – considers the specific issues in the working environment and external factors such as family, social class, etc..
e) Economic aspect – as the production of wealth – the work is a way of life.
Businesses is evaluated by the following requirements:
1) Environment of the business – credibility, respect, fairness, pride and camaraderie;
2) Profile of the company – benefits, compensation, ethics and citizenship, professional development and balancing work and personal life
“There is ways that discover and adopts measures of how to maximize the work efficiency.
– Every person is influenced exclusively by rewards wage, economic and material, not considering the needs of staff achievement and promotion.
The humanism considers the improvement of development, welfare and dignity as the ultimate objective of all human thought and action – above ideals and values of religious, ideological or national.
The commitment to humanism defends the adoption of the following three fundamental principles:
a) Philosophical, consisting in the design of humans – men and women – as be autonomous and rational and respect fundamental to all human beings while endowed with free will, rationality, moral awareness, capacity imaginative and creative.
b) Social policy, which consists of a universal ethic of equality, reciprocity and human solidarity and a policy of pluralistic democracy, fair and human.
c) Educational, consisting of the commitment to help all individuals in implementation and improvement of its potential.
So, with the humanistic approach, “the concern with the machine, the working method, with the formal organization and the principles of administration applicable to organizational aspects give priorities to the concern with man and his social group: the technical aspects for the formal psychological and sociological aspects.
The school of human relations was born from the need of reducing the dehumanization of work and at the same time, increasing the efficiency in business.
The informal groups can communicate with ease, and find supportive environment for the majority of their problems. The formal organization is the organizational structure – organs, functions, hierarchical levels and functional relationships – and informal organization is the set of interactions and relationships that are established between the workers – uses and customs, traditions and social norms.
The informal organization is reflected by attitudes and provisions based on the opinion and sentiment. The expression of the need to ‘join up’ and do not change quickly or make the logic: relate to the sense of values, the lifestyles and the acquisition of social life that a person strives to preserve and defend of which is willing to fight and resist.
The social man, which is based on the following aspects:
a) Employees are complex social creatures, with their feelings, desires and fears. The behavior at work – as the behavior in any place – is a consequence of many motivational factors.
b) People are motivated by human needs and achieve their satisfaction through social groups with whom they interact. Difficult to participate and connect with the group cause elevation of turnover of people, lowering of moral, psychological fatigue, reduced levels of performance,
c) The behavior of social groups can be manipulated by an appropriate style of supervision and leadership (human abilities).
d) The social norms of the group act as regulatory mechanisms of the behavior of members. The levels of production are controlled by the rules of the informal group. This social control takes both positive sanctions (stimulation, social acceptance, etc..) And negative (mockery, isolation from the group, etc.).. The employee is seen as a being creative and thinking, and issues such as integration, social behavior and participation in decisions.
The theory of bureaucracy was born from the work of Max Weber, in the 1940s, he studied the organization as part of a social context, influenced by changing social, economic and religious.
The bureaucratic model is proposed as an efficient administrative structure for complex organizations, governed by the rules and inflexible hierarchy. Bureaucracy is a form of human organization that is based on rationality.
The characteristics of bureaucracy are:
a) Legal nature of the rules and regulations: it is an organization bound by rules and regulations established in writing in advance.
b) Formal communications: they are recorded in writing by forms, so that the bureaucracy is a formally organized to a social structure.
c) Rational: division of labor, where the tasks are set for each participant.
d) Impersonal: relationship in terms of positions, not people.
e) Hierarchy: each post below is under the supervision of the superior officer.
f) Routine: the employee must do what is the boss bureaucracy, he is not independent.
g) Meritocracy: the choice of people is based on merit and technique competence.
h) Administration of expertise: separation between ownership and management.
j) Predictability: assumes that the behavior of all members is perfectly predictable.
As the concept of informal organization is not rational, it is not accepted by the bureaucracy, so the worker is seen only as occupier of a position that needs to respond by the set of tasks that are under its responsibility.
To stimulate the work discipline, the bureaucrat’s official life is planned for him in terms of career, promotions, pensions and wages, and in exchange, it is expected that he adapts his thoughts, feelings and actions to the needs of the organization.
However, these factors increase the conformism and lead to exaggeration in the strict observation of rules, which results in conservatism and technicality. In the bureaucracy are considered the goals of the organization and not the people.
This means that the more bureaucratic an organization is, more people are parts of the bureaucratic machinery, settled for their purposes, without creativity, initiative, and resistant to changes in their routines.
To be successful in all organizations, the organizational man must have the following characteristics of personality:
a) Flexibility, given the constant changes that occur in modern life, and the diversity of roles in various organizations, which can get a reversal, the sudden shutdown of organizations and new relationships.
b) Tolerance to frustration, to avoid the emotional distress arising from the conflict between organizational needs and individual needs, the mediation is done by rational rules, written and comprehensive, seeking involve the entire organization.
c) Ability to rewards and compensate the routine work on the organization, accordingly personal preferences and vocations, and other types of work.
d) Standing desire to achieve, to ensure compliance and cooperation with the rules that control and provide access to the career positions within the organization, providing social rewards and sanctions and materials.
These characteristics of personality vary in degree depending on the organization and position held.