Titration in a Pharmaceutical Laboratory

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Analysis plays a key role in the evaluation of any compound for its quality. It helps us to keep a check on the quality, safety of drugs, food, chemicals and other important methods of analytical chemistry to evaluate chemical substances. It is a method of analysis wherein a substance under test is allowed to react with a known compound in a solution in presence of an indicator. There are different types of titration for different purposes. But all of them some common methodology. During titration, the indicator indicates the end point i.e. it shows when the substances under test have been completely reacted with the analyzing reagent. The sole purpose of titration is qualitative and quantitative estimation a given substance. There are different types of titration for analysis of compound or substances. These methods are economic, effective and also easy to perform. The methods are also reproducible across all the labs. They have similar requirements and outputs if one follows a fixed procedure.

THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TITRATION ARE USED IN EXPERIMENTS & ANALYSIS

A) Based on method of titration: – There are three types of titration based on the method used in process of titration. The three types include 1. Direct 2. In-direct 3. Back titration

B) Based on the nature of solvents and chemical reaction: The titration can also be classified based on nature of solvents used. 1. Aqueous titrations: Acid-base, Redox, Complexometric, Precipitation titrations: 2. Non-Aqueous titrations: Acid-base, Redox titrations. These are similar to aqueous titration but here instead titration but here instead of water as solvents, organic solvents is used.

C). Based on strength of reagents used: The chemical reaction involved in titration is the main principle of titration. But the chemical reaction also depends on the reagents used in the reaction. So acid-base titration or the neutralization reaction are also further divided as:-.

Strong acid v/s Strong Base: Here both acid and base are strong. Ex: HCL v/s NaOH.

Strong acid v/s Weak Base: A strong acid reacts with a weak base. Ex: HCL v/s NH4OH.

Weak acid v/s Strong Base: A weak acid reacts with a strong base. Ex: Acetic acid v/s NaOH.

Weak acid v/s Weak Base: Reaction between a weak acid and a weak base. Ex: Acetic acid v/s NH4OH.

ACID-BASE TITRATION: A) Aqueous acid-base titration: These are normal titration between acid and base dissolved in water. Hence the name aqueous titration.They are prominently used in academic labs and for standardization. 1. Strong acid V/s strong base 2. Strong Acid v/s Weak base 3. Weak Acid v/s Strong Base 4. Weak Acid v/s Weak Base

B) Non-aqueous titration: – These are routine methods of non-aqueous titration. Here instead of water as solvents, glacial acetic acid is used to make the reactants.They are similar to above types of acid-base reactions. Since many drugs are water insoluble and drugs are water-insoluble and slightly acidic or basic, they are analyzed by non-aqueous titrations. They are extensively used for quality control and analysis of drugs.



Source by Ankur Choudhary

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