As the name specifies, the equatorial climate is found at or near the equator. The characteristic features of the temperature, humidity and rainfall are described below:
As the areas with an equatorial climate are located at or near the equator so the sun shines overhead all the year round. The temperature, therefore is uniformly high through out the year. The average temperature of each month hovers around 80 F (27 C). The difference between the hottest and coolest month is very small, normally less than 5 F (3 C). At Singapore (1.1 North) for instance, the average annual temperature is 79 F (26 C) with coolest month January at 78 F and hottest May at 81F – a difference of only 3 F. Such high temperatures throughout the year and without any change makes the weather too monotonous. The diurnal range (the difference between high and low of any given day) is however quite large and it is said that night is the winter of the tropics.
Rainfall and Humidity:
Rainfall is heavy and falls uniformly in each month of the year. Relative humidity is also excessive. The total annual rainfall for the equatorial regions is generally more than 80 inches (2000 mm) and the average relative humidity is around 80%. The high temperature combined with excessive humidity, therefore makes the weather very unpleasant and trying. Taking the example of Singapore again, the total annual rainfall is more than 90 inches (2290 mm) and no month has rainfall below 6 inches (150 mm). Such a heavy rainfall gives rise to thick forests and large areas in this type of climatic zone are covered with dense forests.
This climate is found in the Amazon Basin in South America, in Congo Basin in Central Africa and in Indonesia and Malaysia in Asia.