Barnes, D. K. A., Galgani, F., Thompson, R. C. & Barlaz, M. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 364, 1526 (2009).
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C. & Galloway, T. S. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62, 2588–2597 (2011).
Waller, C. L. et al. Microplastics in the Antarctic marine system: An emerging area of research. Sci. Total Environ. 598, 220–227 (2017).
Fang, C. et al. Microplastic contamination in benthic organisms from the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. Chemosphere 209, 298–306 (2018).
Suaria, G. et al. Floating macro- and microplastics around the Southern Ocean: Results from the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition. Environ. Int. 136, 105494 (2020).
Stark, J.S., Raymond, T., Deppeler, S.L. & Morrison, A.K. Antarctic Seas in World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation (ed. Sheppard, C.) 44 (Academic Press 2019).
Mishra, A. K., Singh, J. & Mishra, P. P. Microplastics in Polar Regions: An early warning to the world’s pristine ecosystem. Sci. Total Environ. 784, 147149 (2021).
Bargagli, R. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems. Sci. Total Environ. 400, 212–226 (2008).
Gregory, M. R., Kirk, R. M. & Mabin, M. C. G. Pelagic tar, oil, plastics and other litter in surface waters of the New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean, and on Ross Dependancy shores. N. Z. Antarct. Rec. 6, 12–26 (1984).
Van Franeker, J. A. & Bell, P. J. Plastic Ingestion by Petrels Breeding in Antarctica. Mar. Poll. Bull. 19(12), 672–674 (1988).
Harper, P. C. & Fowler, J. A. Plastics pellets in New Zeland storm-killed prions (Pachyptila spp) 1958–1977. Notornis 34, 65–70 (1987).
Kelly, A. et al. Microplastic contamination in east Antarctic sea ice. Mar. Poll. Bull. 154, 111130 (2020).
Gigault, J. et al. Current opinion: What is a nanoplastic?. Environ. Pollut. 235, 1030–1034 (2018).
Dawson, A. et al. Turning microplastics into nanoplastics through digestive fragmentation by Antarctic krill. Nat. Commun. 9, 1001 (2018).
Bergami, E. et al. Plastics everywhere: First evidence of polystyrene fragments inside the common Antarctic collembolan Cryptopygus antarcticus. Biol. Lett. 16, 20200093 (2020).
Sfriso, A. A. et al. Microplastic accumulation in benthic invertebrates in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Environ. Int. 137, 105587 (2020).
Jones-Williams, K. et al. Close encounters—microplastic availability to pelagic amphipods in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic surface waters. Environ. Int. 140, 105792 (2020).
Bessa, F. et al. Microplastics in gentoo penguins from the Antarctic region. Sci Rep 9, 14191 (2019).
Le Guen, C. et al. Microplastic study reveals the presence of natural and synthetic fibres in the diet of King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging from South Georgia. Environ. Int. 134, 105303 (2020).
Fragão, J. et al. Microplastics and other anthropogenic particles in Antarctica: Using penguins as biological samplers. Sci. Total Environ. 20, 788 (2021).
International Maritime Organization (IMO), Resolution A. 1087 (28): Guidelines for the Designation of Special Areas under MARPOL, in Assembly, 28th Session, Agenda Item 12, (2013).
Waller, C. L. & Hughes, K. A. Plastics in the Southern Ocean. Antarct. 30, 269 (2018).
Aves, A. R. First evidence of microplastics in Antarctic snow et al. First evidence of microplastics in Antarctic snow. Cryosphere 16, 2127–2145 (2022).
Vacchi, M., La Mesa, M. & Castelli, A. Diet of two coastal nototheniid fish from Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea. Antarct. 6, 61–65 (1994).
Froese, R., & Pauly D. (eds) FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication—FishBase (September, 2022).
La Mesa, M., Dalù, E. M. & Vacchi, M. Trophic ecology of the emerald notothen Trematomus bernacchii (Pisces, Nototheniidae) from Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol. 27, 721–728 (2004).
Lamesa, M., Eastman, J. T. & Vacchi, M. The role of notothenioid fish in the food web of the Ross Sea shelf waters: A review. Polar Biol. 27, 321–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-004-0599-z (2004).
Soggia, F., Ianni, C., Magi, E. & Frache, R. Antarctic environmental Specimen Bank in Environmental Contamination in Antarctica, a Challenge to Analytical Chemistry (ed. Caroli, S., Cescon, P., Walton, B.T.) 305–325 (Elsevier, 2001).
Anger, P. M. et al. Raman microspectroscopy as a tool for microplastic particle analysis. TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 109, 214–226 (2018).
Savoca, S. et al. Microplastics occurrence in the Tyrrhenian waters and in the gastrointestinal tract of two congener species of seabreams. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 67, 35–41 (2019).
Capillo, G. et al. Quali-quantitative analysis of plastics and synthetic microfibers found in demersal species from Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean). Mar. Poll. Bull. 150, 110596 (2020).
Bottari, T. et al. Plastics occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract of Zeus faber and Lepidopus caudatus from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mar. Poll. Bull. 146, 408–416 (2019).
Filgueiras, A. V., Preciado, I., Cartón, A. & Gago, J. Microplastic ingestion by pelagic and benthic fish and diet composition: A case study in the NW Iberian shelf. Mar. Poll. Bull. 160, 111623 (2020).
Mancuso, M. et al. Investigating the effects of microplastic ingestion in Scyliorhinus canicula from the South of Sicily. Sci. Total Environ. 850, 157875 (2022).
Savoca, S. et al. Ingestion of plastic and non-plastic microfibers by farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at different life stages. Sci. Total Environ. 782, 146851 (2021).
Rodrìguez-Romeu, O. et al. Are anthropogenic fibres a real problem for red mullets (Mullus barbatus) from the NW Mediterranean?. Sci. Total Environ. 733, 139336 (2020).
Bansode, M. A., Eastman, J. T. & Aronson, R. B. Feeding biomechanics of five demersal Antarctic fishes. Polar Biol. 37, 1835–1848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-014-1565-z (2014).
Munari, C. et al. Microplastics in the sediments of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Mar. Poll. Bull. 122, 161–165 (2017).
Cincinelli, A. et al. Microplastic in the surface waters of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): Occurrence, distribution and characterization by FTIR. Chemosphere 175, 391–400 (2017).
Eriksson, C. & Burton, H. Origins and biological accumulation of small plastic particles in fur seals from Macquarie Island. Ambio 32, 380–384 (2003).
Carr, S. A. Sources and dispersive modes of micro-fibers in the environment. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag 13(3), 466–469 (2017).
Gavigan, J. et al. Synthetic microfiber emissions to land rival those to waterbodies and are growing. PLoS ONE 15(9), e0237839 (2020).
Manshoven, E. et al. Microplastic pollution from textile consumption in Europe. Eionet Report – ETC/CE 2022/1 (2022).
Remy, F. et al. When microplastic is not plastic: The ingestion of artificial cellulose fibers by macrofauna living in seagrass macrophytodetritus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 11158–11166 (2015).
Savoca, S. et al. Detection of anthropogenic cellulose microfibers in Boops boops from the northern coasts of Sicily (Central Mediterranean). Sci. Total Environ. 691, 455–465 (2019).
Raina, M.A., Gloy, Y.S. & Gries, T. Weaving technologies for manufacturing denim in Denim. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles (ed. Paul, R.) 159–187 (2015).
Lots, F. A. E. et al. A Large-Scale Investigation of Microplastic Contamination: Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in European Beach Sediment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 123, 219–226 (2017).
Athey, S. N. et al. The Widespread Environmental Footprint of Indigo Denim Microfibers from Blue Jeans. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 7, 840–847 (2020).
Lellis, B. et al. Effects of textile dyes on health and the environment and bioremediation potential of living organisms. Biotech. Res. Inn. 3, 275–290 (2019).
Sandhya, S. Biodegradation of azodyes under anaerobic condition: Role of azoreductase Biodegradation of azo dyes. The handbook of environmental chemistry (ed. Erkurt ,H.A.) 9, 39–57 (Springer, 2010).
Oehlmann, J.R. et al. A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 364 (1526), 2047e2062 (2009).
Aquino, J. M. et al. Electrochemical degradation of a real textile wastewater using β-PbO2 and DSA® anodes. Chem. Eng. J. 251, 138–145 (2014).
Newman, M. C. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology: The Science of Pollution (CRC Press, 2015).
Khatri, J., Nidheesh, P. V., Singh, T. A. & Kumar, M. S. Advanced oxidation processes based on zero-valent aluminium for treating textile wastewater. Chem. Eng. J. 348, 67–73 (2018).
Athey, S. N. & Erdle, L. M. Are we underestimating anthropogenic microfiber pollution? A critical review of occurrence, methods, and reporting. Environ. Tox. Chem. 41, 822–837 (2022).
Stone, C., Windsor, F. M., Munday, M. & Durance, I. Natural or synthetic – how global trends in textile usage threaten freshwater environments. Sci. Total Environ. 718, 134689 (2020).
Wright, S. L. & Kelly, F. J. Plastic and human health: A micro issue?. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 6634–6647 (2017).
Ziajahromi, S., Neale, P. A. & Leusch, F. D. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: Review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms. Water Sci. Technol. 74(10), 2253–2269 (2016).
Aronson, R. B., Thatje, S., McClintock, J. B. & Hughes, K. A. Anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems in Antarctica. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1223, 82–1072011 (2011).
Hynes, N. R. J. et al. Modern enabling techniques and adsorbents based dye removal with sustainability concerns in textile industrial sector – A comprehensive review. J. Clean. Prod. 272, 122636 (2020).
Savoca, S. et al. Plastics occurrence in juveniles of Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Sci Total Environ. 718, 137457 (2020).
Galgani, F., Hanke, G., Werner, S. D. V. L. & De Vrees, L. Marine litter within the European marine strategy framework directive. Ices J. Mar. Sci. 70, 1055–1064 (2013).
Bottari, T. et al. Microplastics in the bogue, Boops boops: A snapshot of the past from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. J. Hazardous Mat. 424(15), 127669 (2022).
Pedà, C. et al. Coupling gastro-intestinal tract analysis with an airborne contamination control method to estimate litter ingestion in demersal elasmobranchs. Front. Environ. Sci. 8, 119 (2020).
Visit our sponsors
Wise (formerly TransferWise) is the cheaper, easier way to send money abroad. It helps people move money quickly and easily between bank accounts in different countries. Convert 60+ currencies with ridiculously low fees - on average 7x cheaper than a bank. No hidden fees, no markup on the exchange rate, ever.