Author: Science X staff

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain A new tool developed by European and Australian scientists enabling unparalleled modeling of interconnected species loss shows cascading extinctions are unavoidable, and that the Earth will lose some 10% of its animals and plants by 2050, rising to 27% by 2100. The findings are published in the journal Science Advances. Using one of Europe’s most-powerful supercomputers, European Commission scientist Dr. Giovanni Strona also of the University of Helsinki and Professor Corey Bradshaw of Flinders University used the tool to create synthetic Earths complete with virtual species and more than 15,000 food webs to predict the interconnected…

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Graphical abstract. Credit: Science of The Total Environment (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160901 Sea urchin larvae raised in high levels of plastic pollution die due to developmental abnormalities, new research shows. Scientists put fertilized urchin eggs in seawater with varying levels of plastic, and compared the effects of newly made PVC pellets (called nurdles) with fragments collected on beaches. In all three concentrations tested (1%, 5% and 10% of plastic in seawater), PVC led to significant abnormalities and all urchin larvae died. Beach-collected fragments at 10% concentration also killed the larvae, which developed no proper shape. Lower concentrations of beach-collected plastic did…

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Fires in France have led to the highest levels of carbon pollution since records began. Wildfires that scorched across Europe this year burned a record land area and stoked carbon emissions, according to an update released on Tuesday by Europe’s forest fire and satellite monitors. The summer of 2022 was the hottest in Europe’s recorded history. The continent suffered blistering heatwaves and the worst drought in centuries, as climate change drives ever longer and stronger hot spells. That created tinderbox forests, increasing the risk of devastating and sometimes deadly wildfires. “The length and intensity of the heatwaves to hit Europe…

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Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) see major potential for the expansion of deep geothermal energy in Bavaria. In its Geothermal Energy Master Plan analysis (in German) the research group Geothermal-Alliance Bavaria looks at possibilities for providing geologically disadvantaged regions in the State of Bavaria with sustainable district heating using long-distance heat transport. This is the first time that the technical potential of the hydrothermal geothermal energy in southern Bavaria has been analyzed. The study was commissioned by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Regional Development and Energy, which recently published the report. According…

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A gold-based hybrid material (Au@CB[6]) is modified by CB[6] in order to efficiently convert CO2 to CO. Credit: Nano Research, Tsinghua University Press Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) through an electrochemical reaction holds strong potential for removing CO2 from the atmosphere to reduce pollution and for producing alternative energy with carbon monoxide as an ingredient. However, the current catalysts used in electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) are not efficient or selective enough to make CO2RR a practical solution. Now, a team of researchers from Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter of Chinese Academy…

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Shark teeth collected from seafloor near Cocos (Keeling) Islands at depth 5400m. Credit: Museums Victoria-Ben Healley Scientists on CSIRO research vessel (RV) Investigator have made some exciting finds during recent voyages, including collecting a specimen of a new species of shark and discovering a shark graveyard in the deep ocean. The graveyard even contained the fossilized teeth of the ancient ancestor of the megalodon shark. The discoveries were made on RV Investigator—operated by CSIRO, Australia’s national science agency—during biodiversity surveys in two of Australia’s newest marine parks. The first was a recent voyage to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Marine Park…

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Research shows that islands with high seabird populations which feed in the open ocean and bring large quantities of nutrients to island ecosystems. Credit: Madeleine Pott, Island Conservation Restoring and rewilding islands that have been decimated by damaging invasive species provides benefits to not only the terrestrial ecosystem but to coastal and marine environments as well. Linking land and sea through coordinated conservation efforts may offer unrealized and amplified benefits for biodiversity, human well-being, climate resilience and ocean health, and provides a microcosm for the untapped potential of ecosystem restoration on a larger scale. This new era of conservation focuses…

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Spatial Anomaly Correlation coefficient that quantifies the capability of the model to represent the sea-ice evolution in three different set up: a) no initial correction (CTL); b) realistic initialization of surface field (SIR); 3) realistic initialization of surface and subsurface temperature and salinity (3DVAR). Red-dotted areas show regions where the sea-ice concentration is well predicted. Credit: Communications Earth & Environment (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s43247-022-00529-z Antarctic sea ice deeply affects the global climate in several ways. It regulates the exchanges of heat and gases between the ocean surface and the atmosphere, and drives the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Water that travels…

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Timing of ice surface and bottom melt and freeze onsets of all sites: (a) SMO, (b) SFO, © BMO, and (d) BFO. The color codes (note the different scales for different panels) indicate the respective dates. Grey contours denote the 300 and 2000m isobaths. (e) Variations in dates of melt and freeze onset as a function of the latitude. Credit: European Geosciences Union Years of research show that climate change signals are amplified in the Arctic, and that sea ice in this region is sensitive to increases in Arctic warming. Sea ice greatly modifies the exchanges of heat, momentum and…

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Credit: CC0 Public Domain Is it OK to enjoy warmer summers, given they are caused by climate change? Should we feel shame when we fly? Is anxiety an overreaction, or a rational response to the current climate crisis? There is widespread disagreement about how we should feel regarding climate change. In a new award-winning article, two researchers at the Institute for Futures Studies (IFFS), Stockholm help us sort out our climate emotions. The debate around climate emotions is heated. According to some, certain emotions are appropriate, and others inappropriate. Julia Mosquera, philosopher, and Kirsti Jylhä, researcher in psychology, refer to…

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