Antarctica, or the south pole region, is a continent which is covered with an immense ice shelf. The Arctic region, however, is mainly located in the north polar ocean and includes several larger islands such as Greenland, Spitzbergen, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya Wrangel Island, Bank Island, Victoria Island, Ellesmere Island and various others that all boarder countries like Russia, Canada, Alaska and Greenland. The north polar ocean is covered by year round ice caps that generally extend far south during the Arctic winter and are made up of around 16 million square kilometers of ice. Polar bears live solely in the Arctic areas, while penguins on the other hand, are found in the southern Antarctic regions. For that reason polar bears and penguins never cross paths.