Atmosphere

SimRadar: A polarimetric radar time-series simulator for tornadic debris studies

A University of Oklahoma research team with the Advanced Radar Research Center has developed the first numerical polarimetric radar simulator to study and characterize scattering mechanisms of debris particles in tornadoes. Characterizing the debris field of a tornado is vital given flying debris cause most tornado fatalities. Tornado debris characteristics are poorly understood even though the upgrade of the nation’s ...

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Researchers develop radar simulator to characterize scattering of debris in tornadoes

Researchers have developed the first numerical polarimetric radar simulator to study and characterize the scattering of debris particles in tornadoes. The results of their study are published in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) journal Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. “These results are important for operational weather forecasters and emergency managers,” says Nick Anderson, program director in ...

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Climate instability over the past 720,000 years

A research group formed by 64 researchers from the National Institute of Polar Research, the University of Tokyo, and other organizations analyzed atmospheric temperatures and dust for the past 720,000 years using an ice core obtained at Dome Fuji in Antarctica. Results indicate that when intermediate temperatures occurred within a glacial period, the climate was highly unstable and fluctuated. A ...

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‘Detergent’ molecules may be driving fluctuations in atmospheric methane concentrations

During the early 2000s, environmental scientists studying methane emissions noticed something unexpected: the global concentrations of atmospheric methane (CH4) — which had increased for decades, driven by methane emissions from fossil fuels and agriculture — inexplicably leveled off. The methane levels remained stable for a few years, then started rising again in 2007. Previous studies have suggested a variety of ...

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Banned industrial solvent sheds new light on methane mystery

Since 2007, scientists have been searching to find the cause of a sudden and unexpected global rise in atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas, following almost a decade in which concentrations had stayed relatively constant.  Recent studies have explored a range of possible causes. Suggestions have included a rise in oil and natural gas extraction, increased emissions from tropical wetlands ...

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Novel catalyst to convert carbon dioxide invented

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam (UvA) have invented a new catalyst that can efficiently convert carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO). This soon-to-be patented invention enables the sustainable utilisation of CO2, a potent greenhouse gas linked to climate change. If successful on a larger scale, this invention could provide a practical way for converting CO2 to useful chemicals. ...

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Battery prototype powered by atmospheric nitrogen

As the most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere, nitrogen has been an attractive option as a source of renewable energy. But nitrogen gas — which consists of two nitrogen atoms held together by a strong, triple covalent bond — doesn’t break apart under normal conditions, presenting a challenge to scientists who want to transfer the chemical energy of the bond ...

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With magnetic map, young eels catch a ‘free ride’ to Europe

Each year, young European eels make their way from breeding grounds in the Sargasso Sea to coastal and freshwater habitats from North Africa to Scandinavia, where they live for several years before returning to the Sargasso Sea to spawn and then die, beginning the cycle again. Now, researchers reporting in Current Biology on April 13 have new insight into how ...

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